A methodology to estimate greenhouse gases emissions in Life Cycle Inventories of wastewater treatment plants
The main objective of this paper is to present the Direct Emissions Estimation Model (DEEM), a model for the estimation of CO2 and N2O emissions from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). This model is consistent with non-specific but widely used models such as AS/AD and ASM #1 and presents the benefits of simplicity and application over a common WWTP simulation platform, BioWin®, making it suitable for Life Cycle Assessment and Carbon Footprint studies. Its application in a Spanish WWTP indicates direct N2O emissions to be 8 times larger than those associated with electricity use and thus relevant for LCA. CO2 emissions can be of similar importance to electricity-associated ones provided that 20% of them are of non-biogenic origin.