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Harmonization of initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation- TERA

Previously published life cycle assessments (LCAs) of greenhouse gas emissions from the production and use of shale gas have come to widely varying conclusions about both the magnitude of emissions and its comparison with conventionally produced natural gas and coal for electricity generation. We harmonize estimates from this literature to establish more consistently derived and [...]

Evaluation of Solid Fuel Char Briquettes from Human Waste- TERA

The developing world faces dual crises of escalating energy demand and lack of urban sanitation infrastructure that pose significant burdens on the environment. This article presents results of a study evaluating the feasibility of using human feces-derived char as a solid fuel for heating and cooking and a potential way to address both crises. The [...]

Ecological Accounting Based on Extended Exergy: A Sustainability Perspective- TERA

The excessive energy consumption, environmental pollution, and ecological destruction problems have gradually become huge obstacles for the development of societal–economic–natural complex ecosystems. Regarding the national ecological–economic system, how to make explicit the resource accounting, diagnose the resource conversion, and measure the disturbance of environmental emissions to the systems are the fundamental basis of sustainable development [...]

The Theoretical Limit to Plant Productivity: A Global Analysis- TERA

Human population and economic growth are accelerating the demand for plant biomass to provide food, fuel, and fiber. The annual increment of biomass to meet these needs is quantified as net primary production (NPP). Here we show that an underlying assumption in some current models may lead to underestimates of the potential production from managed [...]

Food Self-Sufficiency across Scales: How Local Can We Go?- TERA

This study explores the potential for regions to shift to a local food supply using food self-sufficiency (FSS) as an indicator. We considered a region food self-sufficient when its total calorie production is enough to meet its demand. For future scenarios, we considered population growth, dietary changes, improved feed conversion efficiency, climate change, and crop [...]

Spatial Trends, Sources, and Air–Water Exchange of Organochlorine Pesticides in the Great Lakes Basin Reveal Toxicity

Polyethylene passive samplers were deployed during summer and fall of 2011 in the lower Great Lakes to assess the spatial distribution and sources of gaseous and freely dissolved organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their air–water exchange. Average gaseous OCP concentrations ranged from nondetect to 133 pg/m3. Gaseous concentrations of hexachlorobenzene, dieldrin, and chlordanes were significantly greater [...]

High Throughput Profiling of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Urban Park Soils with Reclaimed Water Irrigation- TERA

Reclaimed water irrigation (RWI) in urban environments is becoming popular, due to rapid urbanization and water shortage. The continuous release of residual antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) from reclaimed water could result in the dissemination of ARGs in the downstream environment. This study provides a comprehensive profile of ARGs in park soils exposed to [...]

Sunscreens as a Source of Hydrogen Peroxide Stress to Phytoplankton in Coastal Waters

Sunscreens have been shown to give the most effective protection for human skin from ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Chemicals from sunscreens (i.e., UV filters) accumulate in the sea and have toxic effects on marine organisms. In this report, we demonstrate that photoexcitation of inorganic UV filters (i.e., TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles) under solar radiation produces significant [...]

Zinc in House Dust: Speciation, Bioaccessibility, and Impact of Humidity- TERA

Indoor exposures to metals arise from a wide variety of indoor and outdoor sources. This study investigates the impact of humid indoor conditions on the bioaccessibility of Zn in dust, and the transformation of Zn species during weathering. House dust samples were subjected to an oxygenated, highly humid atmosphere in a closed chamber for 4 [...]

Scientists’ Views about Attribution of Global Warming: Once Again Polled Experts Agree Humans Are Dominant Driver

Results are presented from a survey held among 1868 scientists studying various aspects of climate change, including physical climate, climate impacts, and mitigation. The survey was unique in its size, broadness and level of detail. Consistent with other research, we found that, as the level of expertise in climate science grew, so too did the [...]